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A. A war of annihilation

During World War II, military clashes reach an unprecedented level of violence. The brutality of the fighting and the treatment of prisoners by the Germans and Japanese radicalize the commitment of soldiers. Civilian populations are victims of aerial bombing striking the cities and responsible of hundreds of thousands of deaths. Belligerent throw all its forces in great battles, like Stalingrad (Sept 1942 - Feb 1943), perceived as a turning point in the war and the starting point for the liberation of Europe. The Allied decide to fight Germany and Japan up their unconditional surrender. The War ends in Europe, after the capture of Berlin and the suicide of Hitler, While the Americans are forcing Japan to capitulate using the atomic bomb that kills 150,000 people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

B. A total war

All companies involved in the conflict are mobilized for the war effort. Millions of people are employed in the war factories, particularly in the US where the "Victory program" aims to make the country "the arsenal of democracy". Scientific research is also put to use to develop new weapons (radars, German rockets , atomic bomb).
The Nazis exploited the occupied territories, imposing requisitions and forcing hundreds of thousands of men from all over Europe to come and work in Germany, to replace the Germans left to fight on the Eastern Front .

C. An ideological war

European populations are subjected to racist and Nazi ideology and the dominating terror. The Nazis deport political opponents in concentration camps and perpetrate genocide against Jews and Gypsies : nearly 6 million people are killed by the Einsatzgruppen (USSR) and in the extermination camps. Nazi collaborators argue opportunism or conviction. Resistance movements develop : partisans in the USSR, scrub, movements and networks in Western Europe.
The Allies conduct an ideological war in the name of human rights and democracy. Allied leaders, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin, undertake to guarantee the holding of free elections in the liberated countries and to try war criminals (Nuremberg and Tokyo in 1945-1946).

Text translated from lelivrescolaire.fr
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